Saturday, December 29, 2012

Chinese magnate heads Nicaragua canal project

Chinese telecom magnate will head Nicaragua’s canal project

Nicaragua lost its original canal bid to Panama 100 years ago, but
hasn't lost sight of the dream (photo of Panama Canal/ Tim Rogers)

By Tim Rogers/ Nicaragua Dispatch
September 11, 2012
The Nicaraguan government and a newly formed company run by a Chinese
telecom mogul have signed a memorandum of understanding that commits
Hong Kong-based HK Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Co. Ltd. to
financing and building the “Great Canal of Nicaragua,” according to a
statement released Monday night by investment-promotion group

The memorandum stipulates that Nicaragua’s canal will have two
components: a traditional waterway for ships and a “dry canal”
railroad for freight. Both canals will link deep water ports on the
Caribbean and Pacific coasts. Nicaragua has estimated the cost of the
canal project at $30 billion.

The Chairman: Chinese telecom mogul Wang Jing is the new president of
HK Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Co. Ltd (bio photo from

In addition to financing and building the canals, the memorandum says
HK Nicaragua Canal Development Investment will also build a deep-water
port at Monkey Point, on the southern Caribbean coast. The agreement
also commits the Chinese company to completely remodeling Nicaragua’s
Puerto Corinto on the Pacific coast.

While the Chinese company will be charged with managing the
construction and financing of the projects, Nicaragua will remain the
majority stakeholder with 51% ownership. The structure of Nicaragua’s
ownership is still not clear, however.

It’s also unclear what type of canal-building experience the Chinese
company running the project has. Nicaragua Canal Development
Investment is headed by Wang Jing, the president of Xinwei Telecom
Enterprise Group, a Chinese telecom company that specializes in
wireless communication technologies, products and services.

But what the Chinese business tycoon may lack in canal-building
experience, he apparently makes up for in enthusiasm and vision.

On Xinwei’s website, in a message from the company president titled
the “Chairman’s speech,” Wang says his wireless company is dedicated
to the “progress of the world civilization.”

“We are confident that we will succeed,” he says, referring to his
telecom company’s plans for expansion. “Xinwei is creating history!
Xinwei will become a legend!”

If his new canal company can finally fulfill Nicaragua’s centuries’
old canal dreams, Wang will definitely create history and become
Nicaragua '
Translated to Spanish.......................................................................................

Chino magnate de las telecomunicaciones se dirigirá proyecto del canal de Nicaragua

Nicaragua perdió su apuesta original del canal a Panamá hace 100 años, pero
no ha perdido de vista el sueño (foto del Canal de Panamá / Rogers Tim)

Por Tim Rogers / Dispatch Nicaragua
11 de septiembre 2012
El gobierno de Nicaragua y una empresa de reciente formación dirigida por un chino
magnate de las telecomunicaciones han firmado un memorando de entendimiento que compromete
Hong Kong, HK Nicaragua Canal de Desarrollo de Inversiones Co. Ltd.
financiamiento y construcción de la "Gran Canal de Nicaragua", según un
comunicado difundido la noche del lunes por el grupo de promoción de inversiones

El memorando establece que el canal de Nicaragua tendrá dos
componentes: una navegación tradicional para los buques y un "canal seco"
ferrocarril para el transporte de mercancías. Ambos canales unirá los puertos de aguas profundas en el
Costas del Caribe y del Pacífico. Nicaragua ha estimado que el costo de la
conducto proyecto de $ 30 mil millones.

El Presidente: magnate de las telecomunicaciones chino Wang Jing es el nuevo presidente de
HK Nicaragua Canal de Desarrollo de Inversiones Co. Ltd (bio foto de

Además de financiar y construir los canales, el memorándum dice
HK Nicaragua Desarrollo de Inversiones del Canal también construirá un puerto en agua profunda
 en Monkey Point, en la costa sur del Caribe. El acuerdo
también compromete a la empresa china para remodelar completamente de Nicaragua
Puerto Corinto en la costa del Pacífico.

Mientras que la compañía china será cargado a la gestión de la
construcción y financiamiento de los proyectos, Nicaragua seguirá siendo 
mayoría de partes interesadas con 51% de la propiedad. La estructura de Nicaragua,
 todavía no está claro, sin embargo.

Tampoco está claro qué tipo de canal-edificio experimentan los chinos
empresa que ejecuta el proyecto tiene. Nicaragua Canal de Desarrollo
La inversión está dirigida por Wang Jing, presidente de Xinwei Telecom
Enterprise Group, una compañía china de telecomunicaciones que se especializa en
tecnologías inalámbricas de comunicación, productos y servicios.

Pero lo que el magnate de los negocios chinos pueden carecer de la capacidad en el canal
es experiencia, al parecer, lo compensa con entusiasmo y visión.

En el sitio web Xinwei, en un mensaje del presidente de la compañía titulada
"El discurso del Presidente", el Wang dice que su compañía de telefonía celular se dedica
 al "progreso de la civilización mundial."

"Estamos seguros de que vamos a tener éxito", dice, refiriéndose a su
empresa de telecomunicaciones de los planes de expansión. "Xinwei esta creando historia!
Xinwei se convertirá en una leyenda! "

Si su empresa hace el nuevo canal finalmente puede cumplir siglos de 
viejos sueños del canal, en Nicaragua.
Wang definitivamente va a crear la historia y convertirse en

Google Translate for Business:Translator ToolkitWebsite TranslatorGlobal Market Finder
Editado por CBaldwin.

Soybean Production

About Soy
La Fundacion Prosoya a traves  del Club Rotario Bogota Laureles y la Fundacion Sembrando Semillas para el Futuro de MN, esta donando dos vacas de soya para Bagado, y otro municipio en Baudó Choco.
Buscamos donaciones de soya.  Aqui
va un articulo sobre la produccion de la


As of February 2010, all webpages for the National Soybean Research Laboratory have been remodelled, including this page. For updated information, please visit us

Update your bookmark for this page

Soybean Production

Planting, Growing and Harvesting Soybeans

Growing Edamame
Click to learn more.

When is the best time to plant soybeans?
Typically, beans planted during early May have the best yield potential. However, yield depends on several other factors, too. Growing conditions at planting time will influence the success of seed germination and seedling vigor. Just because the calendar says it's time to plant doesn't guarantee that it's the optimum time to plant soybeans. Soybeans need a minimum soil temperature of 55 to 60o Fahrenheit to germinate. Germination rates increase at warmer temperatures. A seed that's in the soil but cannot rapidly germinate and emerge above the soil surface will have a higher chance of exposure to diseases and damping off.
What is the ideal soil for growing soybeans?
Soybean is a hardy plant and well adapted to a variety of soils and soil conditions. Producing the best quality crop and maximum yields will require top quality soil. Thus, soil is one of the first things to consider when planting a crop. A healthy, fertile, workable soil will actually provide seedlings and growing plants with protection from adverse weather including cold, frost, drought, excess water, and protection from pests and diseases.
Ideal soil for optimum soybean production is a loose, well-drained loam. Many fields have tight, high clay soil that becomes waterlogged when it rains. When the soil dries out, a hard crust surface may form which is a barrier to emerging seedlings. These high clay soils are low in humus and may have imbalance in mineral nutrients. Also, these soils may have few beneficial soil organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, earthworms and others). High clay soils may be amended with peat moss, sphagnum, organic mulch to increase the humus content. Sand may be added to loosen and aerate the soil and allow better drainage.
The advantages of loose, well-aerated soil include (1) movement of air to roots and nitrogen-fixing root nodules, (2) increased water-holding capacity with adequate drainage, (3) reduced erosion, (4) reduced weed populations, (5) maintenance of steady and balanced nutrients to roots and balance pH, and (6) increased potential to protect roots from harmful nematodes, insects pests, and pathogens.
How should the seedbed be prepared?
The ideal seedbed for soybeans should provide moisture and the appropriate temperature warmth for rapid germination and seedling emergence. Soil should remain friable without crusting over when dry. Germination of weed seeds should be delayed or prevented.
Soil moisture (about 50% of the soybean weight) must be sufficient to allow uniform and steady germination rates. If soybeans germinate and grow rapidly, weeds can be shaded out. To reduce or discourage weeds, allow the space between the planted rows to remain covered by residue. Another approach is to prepare the seedbed early, let the weeds germinate, then work the seedbed to kill sprouted weeds before planting.
If soybeans have not been grown in a particular location for three to five years, it is best to inoculate the seed with the proper strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium). Some strains are more effective nitrogen fixers than others. Both seed and soil inoculum are available.
What happens during germination and emergence?
Germination is time after the seed is planted in the soil and before the young seedling emerges above the soil surface. After being planted in the soil, the seed absorbs moisture (called imbibition), changing from less than 13% moisture to about 50% in several hours. After one or two days the first root (called the radical) emerges through the seed coat and begins growing downward to establish the root system.
About five to ten days after planting, the new seedling arches through the soil surface (this is called emergence). The hypocotyl ‘hook’ (the emerging portion just below the cotyledons) begins to lengthen pulling the remainder of the seed upward, and the oval seed leaves (called cotyledons) open up. The cotyledons provide the seedling with a temporary source of food (plant useable nutrients originally stored as the seed was formed). The cotyledons quickly turn green and begin making additional food by photosynthesis. Shortly after the first set of true photosynthetic leaves is formed, the cotyledons drop off.
Seed germination and emergence is a critical period in the life of a soybean because poor emergence due to low temperatures, a soil crust, or seed planted too deeply allows seedling pests or diseases to drastically reduce yield.
What are the optimum planting depth, row width, and plant density for soybeans?
Planting depth. Seeds should be planted deep enough to meet the moisture and temperature requirements for germination. Planting depth may be determined by variety, and some varieties can emerge from greater depths than others (usually the larger seeded varieties). Typical planting depths are 1-1.5 inches, but if soil is low in moisture or sandy, plant 2 inches deep. In cool, moist soil, seed can be planted 1 inch deep. Seldom should soybeans be planted deeper than 2.5 inches.
Plant density/population. Plant population varies depending on row spacing and environmental factors. A final plant population may range from 70,000 to 180,000. Typically, 150,000 is a good target for wide rows and 175,000 for narrow rows. Planting an excessive population may result in increased lodging, but an inadequate or uninformed stand may lead to higher weed populations. At lower populations, plants branch more and lodge less, while at high populations the opposite is true. Pods form higher on the plant in high populations. Weeds are more of a problem in low populations. Populations should be adjusted to reduce lodging and keep pods high on the plant. Populations can be increased when growing determinate, semi-dwarf and non-branching varieties. Additionally, the local soil type, environment, and seed quality can influence plant density.
Row width. An important goal is stand uniformity. In general, if weeds are controlled, soybeans will yield more in narrow rows than in 30 inch rows. Benefits from narrowing the row width will depend on location, soil conditions, weather conditions, planting date, and variety. In northern and central regions of the U.S., soybeans grown in narrow rows yield more than those grown in corn-width rows. In southern areas, there is a similar trend toward narrower rows and higher yield if good weed control is achieved. The ‘rule of thumb’ is that the soybean canopy should completely close (cover and shade the space between rows) by flowering time. The faster the soybean canopy closes, the fewer the number of weeds will grow. In narrow rows, weeds can not be cultivated easily.
Should fungicide treated seed be used?
Seed can be treated with fungicide, but this is not necessary. If the soil temperatures are warm and if the germination rate is over 85%, there is little advantage in using fungicide-treated seed. Lower germination seed may have a 5 to 10% increase in emergence if treated.
What is the growth rate of soybeans?
Soybeans are slower growing than most garden beans, requiring warmer weather and about 3 to 5 months for maturity. In cooler growing regions, the rate of development will be slower. Only the early maturing varieties should be grown in the northern growing regions, and the medium or late maturing varieties grown in the south regions. Planting soybeans can be done about the same time as tomatoes and other long-season, warm-weather crops are put in the garden.
What is the vegetative growth stage?
After the seedling has emerged from the soil the young stem and first leaves begin to rapidly grow upward. The seedling is very tough and frost resistant, but if the terminal bud (growing tip) of the stem is killed, side branches will begin to grow. The first six to eight weeds after emergence are called the vegetative period.
The first two leaves that develop are called unifoliolates, one simple leaf or blade supported by a petiole. The remaining leaves are compound leaves composed of three leaflets and are called trifoliolates. The cotyledons, unifoliolates, and trifoliolates are attached to the main stem at regions called nodes. Later, flowers will develop at the nodes between the petiole and stem, and branches also grow out from node regions. Newly formed upper leaves will shade older, lower leaves which may turn yellow and fall off.
How does the root system develop? 
While the stem and leaves grow upward, the root system continues to grow deeper into the soil. Initially, the plant produces a main taproot, but soon after emergence numerous lateral roots branch off to produce a fibrous root system. The deepest roots may reach down five feet or more in loose well drained soil but most of the roots are found in the upper one foot of soil.
The young roots will develop root nodules within a week after emergence. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called Rhizobium, enter the nodules and after ten to fourteen days are able to supply most of the plant's nitrogen needs. In favorable soil conditions, about two dozen nodules will develop on the upper roots of a plant. Healthy nodules are pink or reddish inside.
What happens during the flowering stage?
Typically after six to ten trifoliate leaves have been produced, the soybean plant begins the reproductive period. The flowers are self-pollinated; that is, the flower fertilizes itself, and insects are not required to carry pollen from one flower to another. From 3 to 15 flower buds develop at each node of the stem.
Regarding flower development, soybean plants can be grouped by two main types: determinate and indeterminate. Indeterminate plants continue growing upward at the tip of the stem for several weeks after flowering begins lower on the stem. Upper nodes will not flower until later. Most commercial varieties are indeterminate. They typically grow taller and do well in short growing seasons. Determinate plants complete their growth in height and then produce all the flowers at about the same time. They are usually one-half to two-thirds as tall as indeterminate varieties.
The flowers of soybean are very small (1/4 inch) and are white, pink, or purple. They resemble the flowers of pea or clover, since the soybean is also in the legume plant family. Only about 50 to 80% of the total flowers actually produce pods.
What happens during pod development? 
One or two weeks after the first flowers are produced, the first seed pods appear. Most of the pods are set within the following three weeks. Three to four seeds are produced per pod. For the next 30 to 40 days, the plant will store ‘food’ produced by the leaves in the seeds. The seed-filling period is very critical to yield. If environmental conditions are adverse (drought, hail, or disease), seed-fill will be restricted, and yields will be cut severely.

What happens to the seeds as they mature?
The newly formed seeds contain about 90% moisture. As the seeds fill with food, moisture content decreases to about 60 to 65%. When seeds are mature (filled), the moisture content is 45 to 55% and the pods and stems of the plant are yellow or brown. The mature seed itself will also be completely yellow when mature. Some soybean varieties vary in color and may include black, purple, brown, tan, or mottled coloration. As soybean seeds lose moisture they change from large, kidney bean shaped to a smaller and nearly round shape. When dry, the seed contains about 38% protein, 18% oil, 15% soluble carbohydrates, 15% insoluble carbohydrates, and 14% moisture/ash/other.
When should soybean be harvested?
For use as a green vegetable (called edamame), soybean pods should be harvested when the seeds are fully grown but before the pods turn yellow. Most varieties produce beans in usable condition over a period of a week to 10 days. The green beans are difficult to remove from the pods unless the pods are boiled or steamed 4 to 5 minutes, after which they are easily shelled.
What soybean varieties are available?
Many soybean varieties are available. A collection of over 10,000 accessions of soybean seeds is maintained by the USDA. This USDA collection represents the diversity of soybean germplasm including seeds of every color and description including red, green, black, brown, speckled, streaked, large, and small.
Most of soybean varieties grown commercially today are yellow-seeded field varieties used for animal feed and oil production (for food processing and industrial uses). Other varieties can be obtained for special uses: forage and hay (with an abundance of stems and leaves) and human food (large-seeded, various colored varieties).
Are soybean hybrids available?
Because soybean is self-pollinating, commercial hybrid soybean seed is very difficult to produce. Hybrids are produced by soybean seed breeders, but it is a labor intensive and expensive endeavor.
How important is the soybean ‘MATURITY GROUP’?
Plan to plant seed that is appropriate for the length of your growing season. Soybean varieties are grouped into 13 maturity groups, depending on the climate and latitude for which they are adapted. These maturity groups are given numbers, with numbers 000, 00, 0 and 1 being adapted to Canada and the northern United States, and numbers VII, VIII and IX being grown in the southern U.S. (Group X is tropical.)

The 10 maturity groups correspond to horizontal bands across the United States. The soybean varieties that are best adapted to Illinois conditions are from groups II through V. Credit: StratSoy

What nutrients do soybeans need?
Healthy plants need various amounts of nutrients from the soil. Some nutrients are required in large amounts (macronutrients) and some in small amounts (micronutrients). Most soils either have deficiencies or imbalances in the amounts of nutrients available to the plants. Here is a brief summary of the soil nutrients:
Nitrogen (abbreviated N) is a macronutrient and needed by the plant for certain enzyme functions, to make proteins, and as a necessary part of chlorophyll, nucleic acids, vitamins and several other substances. Soybeans can obtain all the nitrogen they need from root nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Soybean is a legume and which normally provides itself with adequate nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with N-fixing bacteria of the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this symbiotic relationship, carbohydrates and minerals are supplied to the bacteria by the plant, and the bacteria transform nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into ammonium-N for use by the plant. In fact, in tests where fertilizer nitrogen was added to soil, no yield increase occurred, plus the root nodules fixed less nitrogen.
Phosphorus (abbreviated P) is a macronutrient and is needed for general growth and metabolism and for photosynthesis. It carries energy from one part of a cell to another and helps transport food from one part of the plant to another. It also makes up part of cell membranes, nucleic acids and other components. It is necessary for growing really high quality crops. Young seedlings especially need phosphorus. The most efficient and economical way to get phosphorus to crop plants is to maintain soil with adequate levels of humus/organic material and beneficial soil microbes which decompose organic matter to release phosphorus and nutrients to plants.
Potassium (abbreviated K) is a macronutrient and is needed for the plant's enzyme functions, food transport, protein and chlorophyll production, and in regulating water balance, potassium is needed by soybeans in fairly large amounts. Most soils contain large amounts of potassium which are tied up and not available to plants. Soil microbes function to release potassium and other nutrients to plants.
If the soil is very low in potassium, a suggestion for an overall fertilizer source is potassium sulfate (0-0-50). Avoid using fertilizer formulations with chloride because the chloride ion can injure soil microbes as well as soybeans themselves if present in high amounts. Potassium sulfate is more expensive than potassium chloride, but only about one-half as much is needed, and the extra sulfur is usually beneficial.
Calcium (abbreviated Ca) is a macronutrient and is very important for growing high quality soybeans. Calcium is critically important for cell division, root hair growth, enzyme functions, and production of normal cell walls. Calcium improves plant's resistance to disease and gives higher quality, more nutritious crops.
In the soil, calcium and magnesium "compete" for plant absorption. Too much magnesium disrupts the plant's uptake of calcium and potassium, causing low quality crops. Additionally, excess magnesium causes soil to develop hard, crusty conditions. Most soils should have adequate magnesium. In general, soils in the western two-thirds of the U.S. have adequate calcium, while those in the eastern one-third may be deficient.
The best source of calcium is high-calcium lime (calcium carbonate) which has low magnesium and dissolves quickly in water. In alkaline soil, gypsum (calcium sulfate) is the best source of calcium.
Sulfur (abbreviated S) is a macronutrient and is needed to build proteins and assist enzyme functions. Many soils have adequate sulfur because of air pollution from burning high-sulfur coal, but some soils are deficient.
If sulfur is needed for healthy soil, the most readily available source is sulfate-containing fertilizers (calcium sulfate, potassium sulfate). Elemental sulfur (flowers of sulfur) is slow to release and become available.
Micronutrients are required by plants in small amounts and include iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co) and chlorine (Cl). Molybdenum is needed by nitrogen fixing bacteria. In soybeans, the most frequent micronutrient deficiencies are for iron, zinc, manganese and molybdenum. But such deficiencies usually occur in poor, weathered or sandy soils, or in soils that are very alkaline or excessively high in organic matter (mucks and peats). A loamy soil with adequate humus and soil life should not have micronutrient deficiencies. If a micronutrient is deficient in your soil, only that element should be added. Too much of some micronutrients will be toxic.
Nutrient Balance and pH. For healthy crops and high quality yields, nutrients must be available to the plants in the proper amounts and in the right balance. The soil pH (acidity or alkalinity) affects the availability of soil nutrients to plants. The pH scale is expressed as a numerical scale ranging from 0 (most acid) to 14 (most alkaline), with a 7 being neutral. Soybeans grow best in slightly acid soil but can tolerate a wide range of pH (pH 5.8 to 7.0). Soil pH also affects the types and ability of soil organisms to live, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Humus in soil will buffer extremes in pH, and lime can be added to amend soil and counteract acid soil.

Alto Baudo

Municipio Alto Baudó  

Fuente:  Corporacion CGACporación CGAC; Sede Principal 


Su cabecera Pie de Pato, está localizada en la margen izquierda del rió Baudó, a los 05º31'33'' de latitud norte y 76º59'42'' de longitud oeste. Su altura sobre el nivel del mar es de 50m. Temperatura media de 28ºC, precipitación media anual es de 6.439 mm y dista de Quibdó 80 Km.


Cuenta con dos vías de acceso carreteables, por trochas o caminos,  a pie y por botes o canoas. Para acceder a la cabecera municipal desde Quibdó, se utilizan varios transportes; las rutas existentes son difíciles, costosas y de alto riesgo: Quibdó - Istmina - Puerto Meluk, posee una vía natural el río Baudó y sus afluentes, que comunica interna y externamente a sus pobladores. El río es navegable casi todo el año, en épocas de verano el bajo caudal dificulta el transporte.


La cuenca del río Baudó es la tercera en importancia en el Chocó, superficie aproximada de 5400 Km2 delimitada así: Por la serranía del Baudó: Los cerros de Cugucho y la región del San Juan, su principal río es el Baudó que vierte al mar pacífico 706 M3/seg de escorrentías aproximadamente. Los principales afluentes del río Baudó son: Nauca, Apartadó, Dubazá, Pie de Pepé, Berreberre, Urudó, Cugucho, Mojaudó y Amparraidó. Esta red fluvial es básica en la comercialización de los productos


En la cabecera municipal cuenta con 6.300 habitantes y 22.202 en el sector rural (DANE 2006), que se asientan en su mayoría en la ribera del río, predomina la raza negra, que alcanza el 73.33% y seguida por una alta presencia de la etnia indígena (26.67%), los cuales habitan en resguardos legalmente constituidos.


El sistema educativo del alto Baudó está organizado en dos núcleos el N° 35 con sede en Pie de Pato, con 54 establecimientos; 7 en preescolar, 37 en básica primaría, 2 en básica secundaría y media vocacional. Y el Nº.36 con cede en Puerto Echeverri, con 34 establecimientos; 5 en preescolar, 34 en básica primaría y 2 en básica secundaría y media vocacional.


El municipio cuenta con una población matriculada de 6.447 estudiantes y con una demanda según el último censo del DANE (2006) de 14.518 estudiantes, arrojando una cobertura del 44.40%, quedando por fuera 8.071 estudiantes que obedece al 55.59% lo que representa un alto índice de ausencia escolar.


El municipio cuenta con los siguientes corregimientos:
Boca Condotico
Boca Condoto
La Mansa del Salto
San Francisco de Cugucho
Santa Catalina
Santa Rita
Playita (Rió Catrú)




Santa Rita

Puerto Córdoba

Puerto Echeverri

Puerto Martínez

Puerto Alegre


Agua Clara, Bella Luz, Río Amporá, Puerto Alegre, La Divisa, Río Catrú y Dubasa, Río Jurubida - Chori y Alto Baudó, Dominico Londoño, Apartadó, Puerto Libia Tripicay. Ver Tabla.
BASE DE DATOS DE LOS RESGUARDOS DE COLOMBIA: UBICACIÓN, ETNIAS, ÁREA Y POBLACIÓN ajustada a diciembre de 2003 - Certificación para la vigencia 2003
ALTO BAUDO (Pie de Pato )
ALTO BAUDO (Pie de Pato )
ALTO BAUDO (Pie de Pato )
ALTO BAUDO (Pie de Pato )
ALTO BAUDO (Pie de Pato )

ALTO BAUDO (Pie de Pato )
ALTO BAUDO (Pie de Pato )